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How To Apply Iceberg Model In Project Management

Iceberg model is the most indispensable thing when it comes to the communication between people. However, nobody takes cares of it as much it should be cared. This could lead to the success if adopted properly. We know that communication consists of more than words, and we should take care of such essentials which impact our work, and other things.

So, iceberg model demonstrates the relationship that exists between the factual level and the relationship level while communicating. Communication is far more than just words, as there are essentials besides iceberg.


Iceberg Model

Iceberg model – a communication model that is utilized in psychology and education. The iceberg model mainly is intended to demonstrate the interpersonal relationships. The upper surface of an iceberg is conscious, visible and rational, and it is 20% of total. The iceberg model gives only visible information, and you cannot get into the depth to know more about it.




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Similarly, the greater, and bigger and important part of the communication interpersonal relationships is hidden, exactly like an iceberg under the water surface. So, there are two levels of iceberg model, the invisible level and visible level.


The Visible Level (Factual Level)

This level demonstrates the above area which refers to the 20% of visible, rational and conscious communication. This level lets you express, using unambiguous statements, numbers and facts about the language.

Factual level does not go into the depth, and you just know what is visible. However, invisible level (The Relationship Level) demonstrates everything into the depth which matters the most.


The Invisible Level (Relationship Level)

There are further two levels in the relationship level.

  • The Preconscious Level
  • The Unconscious Level

Relationship level is based on both of the level, the preconscious level, and the unconscious level. Relationship level demonstrates the preconscious level which includes trauma, instincts, and drives.



The invisible level matters the most because what you speak, plays just a subordinate role, but what makes your communication stronger and understandable is your facial expression, tone of voice and gestures. These are the decisive factors when you are evaluating a statement, or expressing an idea.

These behaviours are essential, and you need to keep them in mind. These factors express your emotions, and mood, and the way of talking. Not only that, your such behaviours motivate other person.

Values, needs, personality and experiences influence the relationship level, and you need to take care of these things as well. The relationship level refers to the 80% of the invisible communication and unconsciousness.


The Implementation of Iceberg Model in Communication

There are many misunderstandings in the communication, we can avoid them using iceberg model in our communication. In the evaluation, non-verbal and invisible communication of the relationship level play an important role, and this is as important as your concentrate on facts, data and factual level of numbers.

So, it is not only important to focus on the factual level, but the relationship level matters the same. In this way, we can avoid misunderstandings, applying the both level in our communication, the visible and invisible level.


Pareto Principle – Smart Prioritization and Time Management

The Pareto Principle demonstrates that 80% of consequences come from 20% of the causes. This creates an unequal relationship between the inputs and outputs. This rule generally reminds that relationship is not balanced which exists between inputs and outputs. This is called 80/20 Rule or Pareto Rule (Pareto Principle).

Overall, this principle says that with your effort of 20%, you can achieve the 80% of the results. And if you want to achieve other remaining 20%, you will have to put the work in, and provide the more and additional effort with 80% total effort.



We have discussed the Iceberg model and Pareto Principle in a detailed way which shows its importance in the communication. Both levels matter equally in communication, and we should implement the Iceberg model in communication to enhance our level. The factual level and the relationship level should equally be implemented in communication so that your communication goes well. Even invisible level plays more important role as it is something we do not see, but it helps us avoid the misunderstanding.



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